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Book

14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications

Vladivoj Valkovic
Despite the often difficult and time-consuming effort of performing experiments with fast (14 MeV) neutrons, these neutrons can offer special insight into nucleus and other materials because of the absence of charge. 14 MeV Neutrons: Physics and Applications explores fast neutrons in basic science and applications to problems in medicine, the environment, and security. Drawing on his more than 50 years of experience working with 14 MeV neutrons, the author focuses on: Sources of 14 MeV neutrons, including laboratory size accelerators, small and sealed tube generators, well logging sealed tube accelerators, neutron generators with detection of associated alpha particles, plasma devices, high flux sources, and laser-generated neutron sources Nuclear reactions with 14 MeV neutrons, including measurements of energy spectra, angular distributions, and deductions of reaction mechanism Nuclear reactions with three particles in the final state induced by neutrons and the identification of effects of final state interaction, quasi-free scattering, and charge-dependence of nuclear forces Charged particle and neutron detection methods, particularly position-sensitive detectors Industrial applications of nuclear analytical methods, especially in the metallurgy and coal industries Quality assurance and quality control measures for nuclear analytical methods Nuclear and atomic physics-based technology for combating illicit trafficking and terrorism Medical applications, including radiography, radiotherapy, in vivo neutron activation analysis, boron neutron therapy, collimated neutron beams, and dosimetry This book reflects the exciting developments in both fundamental nuclear physics and the application of fast neutrons to many practical problems. The book shows how 14 MeV neutrons are used in materials detection and analysis to effectively inspect large volumes in complex environments.
Book

Energy from the Nucleus: The Science and Engineering of Fission and Fusion (World Scientific Series in Current Energy Issues)

Gerard M. Crawley
Nuclear energy is important — as part of national energy policies, and as a source of carbon free energy; however, incidents such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011), the Chernobyl disaster (1986), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), and the SL-1 accident (1961) have cast doubts on nuclear energy remaining a part of national energy roadmaps. This volume gives an excellent overview of the current situation, as well as the enormous advantages of an essentially unlimited fuel with minimal environmental impact offered by nuclear fusion. Energy from the Nucleus focuses on the two main approaches in producing energy from the nucleus: fission and fusion. The former is covered by an overview of the statuses of current and future generations of nuclear fission reactors, including new safety requirements and the environmental impact; while the latter explores, namely, inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion — including the new international fusion test facility, ITER. The expertise of the authors invited for the various chapters, who are themselves active participants in the technologies, ensures that the accounts and information given are reliable and current. Not to mention, their foresight on the future direction of energy will no doubt enlighten our understanding of Energy from the nucleus.  Readership: Students and professionals interested in/dealing with nuclear engineering; scientists, engineers and policymakers interfacing with nuclear engineering and power.
Book

Fun in Fusion Research

John Sheffield
This book discusses the fun side of the quest to develop fusion energy-a modern equivalent of the hunt for the Holy Grail. After more than 70 years of research, despite great progress, the goal has not been realized. Do you have to be crazy to love quests like this? Not really, but you do have to have an unshakeable optimism. Through humorous anecdotes, and accessible yet detailed scientific discussion, this book illuminates the enjoyment of scientific research through an account of fifty years working on fusion energy development. The anecdotes bring out the human side of research, in which innovative and sometimes egocentric scientists create both clever and nutty experiments. Among the many stories within are witchcraft at Harwell, shocking experiences, entertaining talks, and the wit of top scientists such as Marshall Rosenbluth. Above all the book highlights the significant advances made in developing practical fusion energy and the promise for an exciting future with the National Ignition Facility and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Readership: This book will be of interest to physicists as well as other students and researchers in the scientific and wider communities. It shows the exciting and fun aspects of science research. Author has spent 54 years working in the area, offering key insights on the history of fusion. Clear, detailed explanations of fusion energy are supplied, helping non-science readers understand the area.
Book

Fusion Energy and Power: Applications, Technologies and Challenges

Lionel Romero
The worldwide fusion community continues its research efforts on magnetic confinement as the most promising, long-term, environmentally-friendly power source. Despite the ongoing fusion research efforts in many countries, the technology and materials-related challenges remain formidable and will hinder and delay the first fusion demonstration plant for decades. In this book, the current understanding of technology-related challenges facing fusion research are explored. Advances in fusion neutronics integral experiments in the benchmark mock assemblies for the blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor are also described in brief. Cold Fusion (CF) is examined as well, with the authors' argument backed by evidence that cold fusion (CF) can become more understandable. The final chapter details the Force Free Helical Reactor (FFHR) and its implications on fusion power. Contents:  Overview of Fusion Neutronics Experiments for Blanket of a Hybrid Energy Reactor  (Rong Liu, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, China)  Technology-Related Challenges Facing Fusion Power Plants  (Laila A. El-Guebaly, Lorenzo V. Boccaccini, Richard J. Kurtz, and Lester M. Waganer, University of Wisconsin, Fusion Technology Institute, Madison, WI, USA, and others)  Old Math and Renewed Physics: Keys to Engineering Cold Fusion  (Cynthia Kolb Whitney, Editor, Galilean Electrodynamics)  Control Concept for the High Density and Low Temperature Ignition in the FFHR Helical Reactor  (O. Mitarai, A. Sagara and R. Sakamoto, Kumamoto Liberal Arts Education Center, Tokai University, Toroku, Higashi-ku, Kumamoto, Japan, and others)
Book

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion

George H. Miley and S. Krupakar Murali
This book provides readers with an introductory understanding of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC), a type of fusion meant to retain plasma using an electrostatic field. IEC provides a unique approach for plasma confinement, as it offers a number of spin-off applications, such as a small neutron source for Neutron Activity Analysis (NAA), that all work towards creating fusion power. The IEC has been identified in recent times as an ideal fusion power unit because of its ability to burn aneutronic fuels like p-B11 as a result of its non-Maxwellian plasma dominated by beam-like ions. This type of fusion also takes place in a simple mechanical structure small in size, which also contributes to its viability as a source of power. This book posits that the ability to study the physics of IEC in very small volume plasmas makes it possible to rapidly investigate a design to create a power-producing device on a much larger scale. Along with this hypothesis the book also includes a conceptual experiment proposed for demonstrating breakeven conditions for using p-B11 in a hydrogen plasma simulation.This book also:Offers an in-depth look, from introductory basics to experimental simulation, of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, an emerging method for generating fusion powerDiscusses how the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement method can be applied to other applications besides fusion through theoretical experiments in the textDetails the study of the physics of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement in small-volume plasmas and suggests that their rapid reproduction could lead to the creation of a large-scale power-producing devicePerfect for researchers and students working with nuclear fusion, Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion: Fundamentals and Applications also offers the current experimental status of IEC research, details supporting theories in the field and introduces other potential applications that stem from IEC.
Book

ITER Physics

C. Wendell Horton Jr., Sadruddin Benkadda
The promise of a vast and clean source of thermal power drove physics research for over fifty years and has finally come to collimation with the international consortium led by the European Union and Japan, with an agreement from seven countries to build a definitive test of fusion power in ITER. It happened because scientists since the Manhattan project have envisioned controlled nuclear fusion in obtaining energy with no carbon dioxide emissions and no toxic nuclear waste products. This large toroidal magnetic confinement ITER machine is described from confinement process to advanced physics of plasma-wall interactions, where pulses erupt from core plasma blistering the machine walls. Emissions from the walls reduce the core temperature which must remain ten times hotter than the 15 million degree core solar temperature to maintain ITER fusion power. The huge temperature gradient from core to wall that drives intense plasma turbulence is described in detail. Also explained are the methods designed to limit the growth of small magnetic islands, the growth of edge localized plasma plumes and the solid state physics limits of the stainless steel walls of the confinement vessel from the burning plasma. Designs of the wall coatings and the special "exhaust pipe" for spent hot plasma are provided in two chapters. And the issues associated with high-energy neutrons — about 10 times higher than in fission reactions — and how they are managed in ITER, are detailed.Readership: For nuclear fusion and ITER specialists.
Book

Magnetic Stochasticity in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics)

Sadrilla Abdullaev
This is the first book to systematically consider the modern aspects of chaotic dynamics of magnetic field lines and charged particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The analytical models describing the generic features of equilibrium magnetic fields and magnetic perturbations in modern fusion devices are presented. It describes mathematical and physical aspects of onset of chaos, generic properties of the structure of stochastic magnetic fields, transport of charged particles in tokamaks induced by magnetic perturbations, new aspects of particle turbulent transport, etc. The presentation is based on the classical and new unique mathematical tools of Hamiltonian dynamics, like the action--angle formalism, classical perturbation theory, canonical transformations of variables, symplectic mappings, the Poincaré-Melnikov integrals. They are extensively used for analytical studies as well as for numerical simulations of magnetic field lines, particle dynamics, their spatial structures and statistical properties. The numerous references to articles on the latest development in the area are provided. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers who interested in the modern problems of magnetic stochasticity in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. It is also useful for physicists and mathematicians interested in new methods of Hamiltonian dynamics and their applications.
Book

Search for the Ultimate Energy Source: A History of the U.S. Fusion Energy Program (Green Energy and Technology)

Stephen O. Dean
Why has the clean, limitless energy promised by fusion always seemed just out of reach?Search for the Ultimate Energy Source: A History of the U.S. Fusion Energy Program, explains the fundamentals and concepts behind fusion power, and traces the development of fusion historically by decade—covering its history as dictated by US government policies, its major successes, and its prognosis for the future. The reader will gain an understanding of how the development of fusion has been shaped by changing government priorities as well as other hurdles currently facing realization of fusion power. Advance Praise for Search for the Ultimate Energy Source:“Dr. Dean has been uniquely involved in world fusion research for decades and, in this book, describes the complicated realities like few others possibly could.”-Robert L. Hirsch, a former director of the US fusion program, an Assistant Administrator of the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA); an executive at Exxon, Arco, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and lead author of the book The Impending World Energy Mess(Apogee Prime Books, 2009).“In this book, Dr. Dean provides the many reasons why fusion has progressed more slowly than many had hoped. Budget is usually cited as the culprit, but policy is equally to blame. Facilities have been closed down before their jobs were done—or in some cases, even started. It seems this situation has become endemic in fusion, and if one thinks about it, in other nationally important Science and Technology initiatives as well.”-William R. Ellis, a former scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Associate Director of Research at the US Naval Research Laboratory, a vice president at Ebasco Services and at Raytheon, and chair of the US ITER Industry Council and the US ITER Industrial Consortium.
Book

Self-Organization of Hot Plasmas: The Canonical Profile Transport Model

Yu.N. Dnestrovskij
In this monograph the author presents the Canonical Profile Transport Model or CPTM as a rather general mathematical framework to simulate plasma discharges.The description of hot plasmas in a magnetic fusion device is a very challenging task and many plasma properties still lack a physical explanation. One important property is plasma self-organization.It is very well known from experiments that the radial profile of the plasma pressure and temperature remains rather unaffected by changes of the deposited power or plasma density. The attractiveness of the CPTM is that it includes the effect of self-organization in the mathematical model without having to recur to particular physical mechanisms.The CPTM model contains one dimensional transport equations for ion and electron temperatures, plasma density and toroidal rotation velocity. These equations are well established and in fact are essentially a reformulation the laws of energy, particle and momentum conservation. But the expressions for the energy and particle fluxes, including certain critical gradients, are new. These critical gradients can be determined using the concept of canonical profiles for the first time formulated in great detail in the book. This concept represents a totally new approach to the description of transport in plasmas. Mathematically, the canonical profiles are formulated as a variational problem. To describe the temporal evolution of the plasma profiles, the Euler equation defining the canonical profiles is solved together with the transport equations at each time step. The author shows that in this way it is possible to describe very different operational scenarios in tokamaks (L-Mode, H-Mode, Advanced Modes, Radiating Improved Modes etc…), using one unique principle.The author illustrates the application of this principle to the simulation of plasmas on leading tokamak devices in the world (JET, MAST, T-10, DIII-D, ASDEX-U, JT-60U). In all cases the small differences between the calculated profiles for the ion and electron temperatures and the experimental is rather confirm the validity of the CPTM. In addition, the model also describes the temperature and density pedestals in the H-mode and non steady-state regimes with current and density ramp up. The proposed model therefore provides a very useful mathematical tool for the analysis of experimental results and for the prediction of plasma parameters in future experiments.
Book

The Theory of Toroidally Confined Plasmas

Roscoe B White
This graduate level textbook develops the theory of magnetically confined plasma, with the aim of bringing the reader to the level of current research in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It begins with the basic concepts of magnetic field description, plasma equilibria and stability, and goes on to derive the equations for guiding center particle motion in an equilibrium field. Topics include linear and nonlinear ideal and resistive modes and particle transport. It is of use to workers in the field of fusion both for its wide-ranging account of tokamak physics and as a kind of handbook or formulary.This edition has been extended in a number of ways. The material on mode-particle interactions has been reformulated and much new information added, including methodology for Monte Carlo implementation of mode destabilization. These results give explicit means of carrying out mode destabilization analysis, in particular for the dangerous fishbone mode. A new chapter on cyclotron motion in toroidal geometry has been added, with comparisons of the analysis of resonances using guiding center results. A new chapter on the use of lithium lined walls has been added, a promising means of lowering the complexity and cost of full scale fusion reactors. A section on nonlocal transport has been added, including an analysis of Levy flight simulations of ion transport in the reversed field pinch in Padova, RFX.Readership: Graduate students and researchers in the field of thermonuclear fusion.